CICERO Systems™
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Duration:1-3 Periods

Lesson 1

The Greeks and Romans

This lesson focuses the students attention on the similarities and differences between the ancient Greeks and Romans. Did one society influence the other? What role did democracy play in governing these societies? How did these societies influence the development of the United States government?

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Duration:1-3 periods

Lesson 6

The Toleration Act 1689

This lesson focuses on the Toleration Act of 1689. In small groups, students will analyze the segments of this document, rewrite a modern version providing explanation of religious freedom granted to citizens, and draw connections between the Toleration Act of 1689 and the Bill of Rights within the United States Constitution.

Duration:1-2 periods

Lesson 1

Motivations of Explorers

This lesson will explore the economic, political and religious motivations of explorations by various countries during the time period of 1450 to 1650.

Duration:1 period

Lesson 2

Who's Who of Explorers

This lesson focuses on the hardships and the accomplishments of various explorers in their quest to find the riches of Asia and to discover and claim new land for their country.

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Duration:1 period

Lesson 3

Tools of Explorers

This lesson reviews navigation technology that was available to early explorers. The students will have an opportunity to construct an astrolabe, quadrant or compass, discuss the similarities and differences between these tools and how they compare to navigation technology today.

Duration:1-2 Periods

Lesson 4

The Columbian Exchange

This lesson examines the global impact, for better or worse, of the Columbian Exchange. First, students will build schema and geography skills by completing a map activity. Next, teachers will broaden that schema by introducing key terms and basic background information. Then, working cooperatively, students will dig deeper through a guided, structured research activity. Finally, students will use all of this information to construct a five-paragraph essay describing in detail some of the changes that were brought about by the Columbian Exchange.

Duration:1 period

Lesson 1

The Mayflower Compact

In this lesson, students will analyze the Declaration of Independence and identify the three main points of the document. Students will then compare and contrast the Declaration of Independence with the Mayflower Compact.

Duration:1 period

Lesson 2

The Puritans

In this lesson, students will explore the ideals the Founding Fathers used to create the Constitution of the United States. Through role play student will identify John Winthrop, describe how his beliefs about society impacted the Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and how those ideals in-turn connect to the Constitution of the United States.

Duration:1-2 Periods

Lesson 3

Colonial Diversity

Here students will have an opportunity to gain a better understanding of the various motives of early colonists to begin a new life and the challenges they faced. How did each group of colonists cope with these challenges? Did all colonists face the same types of challenges? Students will be able to answer these questions and be able to compare the decisions various societies made to promote a better life for all citizens.

Duration:1 period

Lesson 5

The Pennsylvania Charter of Privileges

In this lesson, students will examine how freedom of religion is important to a free society today and as a motivation to the early colonists of the 1700's. Students will also have an opportunity to review and analyze the Primary Source, Charter of Privileges, 1701.

Duration:1 period

Lesson 6

The French and Indian War

In this lesson, students in small groups will research information on and construct a timeline of the French and Indian War and the Seven Years War. Based up on their research, students will respond to the question, How did the French and Indian War impact the American Colonies?

Duration:3 Periods

Lesson 1

Committees of Correspondence

This lesson introduces students to two new Revolutionary War topics while reinforcing information learned in previous lessons. The lesson employs the ARTIST teaching method to help students analyze a primary source document. Throughout the lesson, students will engage in individual, partner, and whole group activities in order to master the objectives. Students should have demonstrated adequate understanding of the Boston Tea Party and the Coercive Acts before beginning this lesson.

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Duration:1 period

Lesson 2

Shays' Rebellion

This lesson reinforces prior knowledge and encourages critical thinking. First, students combine prior knowledge with secondary source analysis to gain a better understanding of the circumstances that led to Shays’ Rebellion. Then, students will use all of this information to draw their own conclusions about the overall importance and impact of this event. Conduct this lesson after students have been exposed to the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and the Annapolis Convention.

Duration:2 Periods

Lesson 3

The Boston "Massacre"

With this lesson, students examine both secondary and primary sources to discover both the causes of and the events that occurred on the evening of March 5, 1770. The lesson employs “Frame of Reference,” a strategy in which students examine different views of an event, promoting critical thinking skills such as the ability to detect bias and to make reasoned judgments based on evidence. A cooperative learning strategy called “Think-Pair-Share” is used to facilitate the lesson.

Duration:1 period

Lesson 2

Washington's Farewell Address

In this lesson, students will analyze President George Washington's quotes and speeches. What was his decision about continuing on as President of the United States? What advice did he give in his Farewell Address regarding federal government and foreign relations? Has his advice been applied by other Presidents of the United States?

Duration:2 Periods

Lesson 3

The American System

In this lesson, students will investigate the American System and gain an understanding of what role the United States government had in the economy during the 1800s. How did the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans differ in their point of view on this matter? Is the American System still in effect today?

Duration:2 Periods

Lesson 4

The Louisiana Purchase

In this lesson, students will determine why Napoleon Bonaparte decided to sell France's land within the United States. What prompted him to sell such a large area of land for a low price? The students will identify and locate current states that were a part of the Louisiana Purchase. How did this purchase of land effect the growth of the United States? Using the information researched, students will create a story/newscast about the Louisiana Purchase from the perspective of either an American or French news reporter.

Duration:2 Periods

Lesson 5

The Embargo Act

In this lesson, students will analyze President Thomas Jefferson's decision on the Embargo Act of 1807. Was the Embargo Act a good idea? What challenges were encountered? Was it successful? How does the Embargo Act of 1807 connect to the United States' dependence on Mideast oil producing companies today?

Duration:2 Periods

Lesson 6

The War of 1812

In this lesson, students will identify who was involved in the War of 1812. What events and motives led to this war? What was the outcome of this war? Students will develop a classroom presentation based up on the information they gather.

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Duration:2 Periods

Lesson 8

The Monroe Doctrine

In this lesson, students will describe the Monroe Doctrine, presented by President James Monroe to Congress in 1823, and the events that led to the development of this document. Students will discuss the purpose of the Monroe Doctrine and whether or not they agree with its position.

Duration:1-2 Periods

Lesson 7

The Missouri Compromise

In this lesson, students will identify slavery as the cause of debate which led to the Missouri Compromise of 1820. How will slavery be addressed within new states admitted to the Union? What were the terms of the Missouri Compromise? Was it successful in preventing a confrontation over slavery? Students will read background information on the Missouri Compromise and color code a map to outline the Missouri Territory and the Union as it was in 1820. The students will take part in a classroom role play to help understand how lawmakers need to work toward compromise between differing points of view in order for change to take place.

Duration:2 Periods

Lesson 1

Northern Industry

In this lesson, students will use Primary Sources to analyze how the development of industry in the north changed life in the United States just prior to the Civil War. Were most people for or against the growth of industry? How does the industry of the 19th Century compare to industry today, both in the United States and globally?

Duration:1 period

Lesson 2

The Lowell Mills

In this lesson, students will be able to gain an understanding of the routine and conditions of life for the Lowell Mills girls. How was their day structured? What were their responsibilities? What were the conditions of the factories the girls endured? The students will use their writing skills to develop a narrative describing life in the Lowell Mills.

Duration:1-2 Periods

Lesson 3

Indian Removal

In this lesson, students will explore the controversy surrounding President Andrew Jackson’s Indian Removal policy. Using primary sources, students will read the words of those involved, and compare the viewpoints of Jackson, Cherokee leaders, and other leading politicians. After analyzing and assessing these viewpoints, students will place the legacy of Indian Removal, culminated by the Trail of Tears, in the history of United States relations with Native Americans.

Duration:1-2 Periods

Lesson 2

Southern Slavery

In this lesson, students will explore the conditions of daily life that slaves endured and determine if these conditions were cause for slaves to rebel against their owners or be more compliant. Students will use creative writing skills to develop a letter to abolitionist newspaper from a fictitious slave describing the horrible conditions of slavery.

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Duration:1 Period

Lesson 3

The Compromise of 1850

In this lesson, students will have the difficult task of devising an original plan to appease multiple parties on the issue of slavery and how new territories will address slavery during the mid 1800s. Students will then review Henry Clay's 1850 Resolution, examine the terms of the Compromise of 1850 and determine what was gained and lost as a result of the Compromise of 1850.

Duration:2 Periods

Lesson 4

The Know Nothing Party

In this lesson, students will examine the origins and history of the Know-Nothing Party. Students will also investigate and debate how immigration was perceived by political, religious leaders and and society during the mid to late 1800s.

Duration:2 Periods

Lesson 5

The Underground Railroad

As an introduction to this lesson, students will analyze the lyrics of Follow the Drinking Gourd. Students will work in small groups to complete web quests on a given aspect of the Underground Railroad and determine whether the Fugitive Slave Act positively or negatively impacted various people during this time period.

Duration:1 Period

Lesson 6

The Kansas Nebraska Act

In this lesson, students will examine the how the issue of slavery was being handled by the United States government and the reaction of people in both the north and south. The students will review the terms of the Kansas Nebraska Act along with political cartoons and determine if the Kansas Nebraska Act was the best possible solution at that time. Using their creative writing skills, student will create a newspaper article highlighting aspects of history that revolve around the development of the Kansas Nebraska Act.

Duration:1 Period

Lesson 7

Lincoln's First Inaugural Address

In this lesson, students will investigate the purpose of a Presidential Inaugural Address. Students will analyze Lincoln's First Inaugural Address and how Lincoln structured his speech to reflect his beliefs yet try to preserve the delicate nature of the country during that turbulent time. Students will have an opportunity to develop their own inaugural speech from Lincoln's perspective.

Duration:1 Period

Lesson 1

Radical Republicans

How radical were the Radical Republicans of the 1860s? In this lesson, students will analyze their ideals and proposals and determine how radical they were during that time period as well as develop a comparison to today's Republicans.

Duration:1 Period

Lesson 2

Peace Democrats

Throughout history, times of great conflict tend to bring out multiple perspectives among citizens and politicians alike. Can the conflict be resolved peacefully? Is declaring war the only option? How will the government bolster support for a lengthy war effort? In this lesson, students will investigate how the Peace Democrats of the 1860s, commonly called Copperheads, responded during the Civil War and Reconstruction Eras. Can a connection be drawn between the reactions to the crisis situation of the 1860s and those of more recent history?

Duration:1 Period

Lesson 3

War Democrats

In this lesson, students will assess the support President Lincoln received from the Democrats regarding the Civil War. What was the point of view of the War Democrats verses the Peace Democrats? What events led Former Union General, George McClellan, to change his support of the war? With an election on the horizon in 1864, would George McClellan become a Democratic nominee? Students representing both the War Democrats and Peace Democrats will role play a meeting to discuss their support of the Civil War and the nomination of George McClellan as the Democratic candidate in the election of 1864.

Duration:2 Periods

Lesson 4

The British Reaction

How did the British react to secession and the Civil War conflict evolving within the United States? In this lesson, students will examine the events of the Trent Affair and determine whether the British supported the Union or Confederacy, or if they took more of a neutral position during this time.

Duration:1 Period

Lesson 5

The French Reaction

How was the United States Civil War perceived by European countries? This lesson provides students an opportunity to explore how the French government reacted to the United States Civil War. Did they favor the efforts of the Union or did they favor the ideals of the Confederacy and why? Students will research this information and also analyze political cartoons illustrating these issues.

Duration:1 Period

Lesson 6

The Battle of Gettysburg

In this lesson, students will examine the events of the Battle of Gettysburg and determine why this particular battle was a pivotal event in the Civil War.

Duration:1 Period

Lesson 7

The Gettysburg Address

In this lesson, students will analyze President Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. Students will identify the Gettysburg Address as Lincoln's most famous speech. Students should pay specific attention to the way in which Lincoln used past and current events to develop future goals for the nation and use this writing method to develop an original speech in honor of Veteran's Day.

Duration:2 Periods

Lesson 8

The Battle of Fredericksburg

In this lesson, students will have an opportunity to analyze the events of the Battle of Fredericksburg and write a newspaper article about the historic event from the perspective of either a northern or southern newspaper reporter.

Duration:2 Periods

Lesson 10

The Confederacy

Reflecting upon the Economic, Social, and Political differences between northern and southern states which eventually led to secession and the Civil War, students will compare and contrast the United States Constitution with the Confederate Constitution. Students will have an opportunity to discuss if any of their findings came as surprise.

Duration:2 Periods

Lesson 2

Effects of the Homestead Act

The Homestead Act was a key factor in westward migration.  What were the requirements for land ownership?  What challenges did migrants face?  Students will investigate the impact of the Homestead Act on the development of the West and discuss the lifestyle of migrants.

Duration:2 Periods

Lesson 7

Street Gangs

What factors contributed to the rise of urban street gangs? In this lesson, students investigate the factors that led to the rise of urban street gangs and compare late 19th century gangs to gangs of today.

Duration:2 Periods

Lesson 8

Police Forces

How did society respond to the rise of urban street gangs?  In this lesson, students will investigate the rise of police forces in America and debate the role of the police in society.

Duration:2 Periods

Lesson 9

Urban Political Machines

Why did political machines develop?  In this lesson, students will investigate the factors that led to the rise of political machines in the mid to late 19th century and their role in society.  They will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the political machine system.

Duration:1 Period

Lesson 5

Unneutral Neutrality

In this lesson, students will identify and analyze President Woodrow Wilson's position for United States neutrality during the onset of World War I and how his position changed in 1917.

Duration:3 Periods

Lesson 9

Theodore Roosevelt

In this lesson, students will identify and analyze President Theodore Roosevelt's accomplishments and use research evidence to determine his role as a "Founding Father" of the United States of America.

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Duration:2 Periods

Lesson 3

Sports in the 1920s

In this lesson, student will explore the cultural aspect of the 1920's. Students will identify the major sporting events of the time period and develop a creative news broadcast announcing the outcome of a particular sporting event.

Duration:2 Periods

Lesson 6

The New Deal

In this lesson, students will identify and analyze measures the United State government took to counteract the Great Depression, specifically the New Deal. Students will compare and contrast Hoover's and Roosevelt's responses to the Great Depression and use Primary Sources to explore how government can promote economic prosperity.

Duration:1 Period

Lesson 1

The Appeasement of Germany

In this lesson, students will research and identify Hitler's acts of aggression prior to the onset of World War II and analyze the events that led to and outcome of the Munich Conference.

Duration:2 Periods

Lesson 3

Pearl Harbor

In this lesson, students will research and identify the who, what, when, how and why pertaining to the bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941 and how the nation reacted to the news of this event. Compare our nation's reaction to the bombing of Pearl Harbor with the reaction to the events of 9/11. How would you describe the mood of the people of the United States?

Duration:2 Periods

Lesson 4

The Battle of Midway

In this lesson, students will determine the historical significance of the Battle of Midway. What events led to this battle and what was the outcome? The students will create a journal on the Battle of Midway from a given perspective outlining facts as well as personal thoughts that person may have had about the events before, during and after the battle.

Duration:1 Period

Lesson 5

From D-Day to Berlin

This lesson provides students with an opportunity to examine how propaganda posters were used to rally American support for World War II. Students will research the event of D-Day.

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Duration:2 Periods

Lesson 6

Why Truman Dropped the Bomb

To bring an end to World War II, United States President Harry Truman made the final decision to drop an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan. In this lesson, students will research the history of the atomic bomb; creating the bomb, the decision to use the bomb and the results of using the bomb. The students will create and debate a list of the pros and cons of the decision to use the atomic bomb. Using the information they have gathered from the lesson, students, in small groups, will create a newspaper article outlining the events surrounding the bombing of Japan.

Duration:2 Periods

Lesson 7

The Atomic Age

In this lesson, students will be able to describe the Atomic Age. What events led to the creation of the atomic bomb? How was nuclear energy developed into a weapon? Who invented it? For what purpose did it serve? In The students will research and debate the United States' decision to use the atomic bomb in 1945, using evidence to support their point of view.

Duration:1 Period

Lesson 1

Nuclear Proliferation

Along with having great power comes the responsibility of using it wisely. In this lesson, students will review the Theory of Relativity and how it helped to formulate the energy source for nuclear weapons. Why would nuclear weapons be necessary and so greatly coveted by various governments? What would be the destructive outcome of using these weapons? Students will explore which countries have the scientific technology to generate nuclear weapons and why good judgment and responsibility is important in having access to such power.

Duration:1 Period

Lesson 4

The Civil Rights Movement

What was the Civil Rights movement? Who was involved and what did they try to accomplish? What challenges did they encounter? In this lesson, students will use Primary Sources and research to explore the answers to these very important questions.

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